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Tongue Deutsch VideoAMERICANS TRY GERMAN TONGUE TWISTERS!!!
The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery. An area in the neck sometimes called the Pirogov triangle is formed by the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle , the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle , and the hypoglossal nerve.
Innervation of the tongue consists of motor fibers, special sensory fibers for taste, and general sensory fibers for sensation. Innervation of taste and sensation is different for the anterior and posterior part of the tongue because they are derived from different embryological structures pharyngeal arch 1 and pharyngeal arches 3 and 4, respectively.
The upper surface of the tongue is covered in masticatory mucosa a type of oral mucosa which is of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors. The tongue can also divide itself in dorsal and ventral surface.
The dorsal surface is a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium which is characterized by numerous mucosal projections called papillae. The ventral surface is stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium which is smooth.
The tongue begins to develop in the fourth week of embryogenesis from a median swelling, the median tongue bud known as the tuberculum impar , of the first pharyngeal arch.
In the fifth week a pair of lateral swellings, the lateral lingual swellings distal tongue buds one on the right side and one on the left, form on the first pharyngeal arch.
These lingual swellings quickly expand and cover the tuberculum impar and continue to develop through prenatal development. They form the anterior part of the tongue that makes up two thirds of the length of the tongue.
The line of their fusion is marked by the median sulcus. In the fourth week a swelling appears from the second pharyngeal arch , in the midline, called the copula.
During the fifth and sixth weeks the copula is overgrown by a swelling from the third and fourth arches mainly from the third arch called the hypopharyngeal eminence , and this develops into the posterior part of the tongue the other third.
The hypopharyngeal eminence develops mainly by the growth of endoderm from the third pharyngeal arch. The boundary between the two parts of the tongue, the anterior from the first arch and the posterior from the third arch is marked by the terminal sulcus.
At the tip of the terminal sulcus is the foramen caecum , which is the point where the embryological thyroid begins to descend.
Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants. Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva , it can make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs, which are the sites of taste transduction.
The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells that can sense particular classes of tastes.
Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami.
The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system. The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard palate, during mastication and manipulation of food for softening prior to swallowing.
Consequently, the tongue can grind against the hard palate without being itself damaged or irritated.
The intrinsic muscles of the tongue enable the shaping of the tongue which facilitates speech. The tongue plays a role in physical intimacy and sexuality.
The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.
A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth by a very short and thickened frenulum and this affects speech, eating, and swallowing.
The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue , and median rhomboid glossitis ; burning mouth syndrome , oral hairy leukoplakia , oral candidiasis thrush and black hairy tongue.
There are several types of oral cancer that mainly affect the tongue. Mostly these are squamous cell carcinomas. Food debris, desquamated epithelial cells and bacteria often form a visible tongue coating.
The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body.
The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration apart from Intravenous therapy of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris.
The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish. As a consequence most vertebrate animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - have tongues.
In mammals such as dogs and cats , the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites.
Some dogs have a tendency to consistently lick a part of their foreleg which can result in a skin condition known as a lick granuloma. A dog's tongue also acts as a heat regulator.
As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow. The tongue hangs out of the dog's mouth and the moisture on the tongue will work to cool the bloodflow.
Some animals have tongues that are specially adapted for catching prey. For example, chameleons , frogs , and anteaters have prehensile tongues.
Other animals may have organs that are analogous to tongues, such as a butterfly 's proboscis or a radula on a mollusc , but these are not homologous with the tongues found in vertebrates, and often have little resemblance in function.
For example, butterflies do not lick with their proboscides; they suck through them, and the proboscis is not a single organ, but two jaws held together to form a tube.
The tongue can be used as a metonym for language. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost , and began to speak with other tongues The phrase mother tongue is used as a child's first language.
Many languages  have the same word for "tongue" and " language ". A common temporary failure in word retrieval from memory is referred to as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously — something said or done with subtle ironic or sarcastic humour.
A tongue twister is a phrase made specifically to be very difficult to pronounce. Aside from being a medical condition , "tongue-tied" means being unable to say what you want due to confusion or restriction.
The phrase "cat got your tongue" refers to when a person is speechless. Es liegt mir auf der Zunge. I have it on the tip of my tongue.
Orthographically similar words tongued. Aus dem Umfeld der Suche offshoot , headland , apophysis , languet.
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Im Web und als APP. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.
The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.
Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.
The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.
Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.
Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.
However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.
The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.
These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.
The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.
Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.
They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.
These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland.
The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg. South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.
While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are however Low Alemannic.
The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east.
The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.
The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.
German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.
The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.
Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.
The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.
Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.
The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duty assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].
However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical. The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.
Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.
Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function.
In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".
For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.
For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.
German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.
The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:.
The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.
In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.
The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.
When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.
Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.
The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?
Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.
Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.
Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.
In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.
Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.
Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.
Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.
During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.
The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.
At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.
The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.
Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.
As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.
These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate.
The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.
The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur. It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
The most recent edition is the 42nd from Since the 39th edition from the orthography of the ÖWB was adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.
This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems.
Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut , namely ä , ö and ü , as well as the eszett or scharfes s sharp s: The longest German word that has been published is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft made of 79 characters.
Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".
Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used. Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.
Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae. In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.
Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.